Linux and Unix based systems configurations, manuals, HOWTOs and more ... 2014-06-06T06:54:16Z WordPress Gevorg G. Harutyunyan <![CDATA[CodeIgniter Problems with GoDaddy]]> 2013-03-09T16:38:24Z 2013-03-09T16:34:18Z Related posts:
  1. Apache Authentication Creating Password Create htpasswd file for current (pwd […]...
When you are using GoDaddy hosting you can get errors with CodeIgniter framework URLs and routers.

After research I did following configuration, and everything is working fine for me.
First I have changet this valiables in /application/config/config.php

$config['base_url']	= '';
$config['index_page'] = 'index.php?';
$config['uri_protocol']	= 'REQUEST_URI';

Then I have created /.htaccess file and wrote in:

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ /index.php?$1 [L]
Gevorg G. Harutyunyan <![CDATA[lftp – ERROR: Fatal error: Certificate verification: Not trusted [HowTo]]]> 2013-03-09T16:39:23Z 2013-01-15T12:06:15Z Related posts:
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When You use lftp, You maybe get following error:
Fatal error: Certificate verification: Not trusted

Disable certificate verification in lftp:

$ vi ~/.lftp/rc 
set ssl:verify-certificate no
Gevorg G. Harutyunyan <![CDATA[oDesk Unix Test Questions and Answers Discussions]]> 2012-12-29T20:57:27Z 2012-12-29T20:28:28Z Related posts:
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Here is oDesk Unix Test with score 3.40 of 5 (Passing Score was 2.50).

August, 2012

Aattention: ose only educational purposes!

Topic Correct Answers(%)
Basic Concepts and Administration 67%
Commands 86%
File Commands 75%
Filters 50%
Filters and Shells 75%

If anyone knows which answer is incorrect please write as comment.

Question 1: The UNIX command
a.out &
runs the program a.out:

a. With highest priority
b. With highest speed
c. Only when no other process is running on the system
d. In the background
e. Is invalid

Question 2: Which command will you use to see the available routes and their status?

a. show route
b. route status
c. netstat -rn
d. None of the above

Question 3: Which of the following commands can be used to view the calendar of April 2007?

a. $cal april 2007
b. $cal april 07
c. $calendar 4 07
d. $cal 4 2007

Question 4: Which command is used to run a command at a specified time?

a. timer
b. at
c. time
d. atq
e. dd

Question 5: By which screen manipulation command can you specify the coordinates for the cursor position ?

a. tput cup
b. tput smso
c. tput rmso
d. tput blink
e. tput reverse

Question 6: Which option of the grep filter prints out all those lines that do not match the pattern specified by the regular expression?

a. -n
b. -c
c. -d
d. -l
e. -v

Question 7: What would be displayed on the screen if the pwd command is entered when the user is working in the user directory?

a. /
b. home
c. /home/username
d. usr/
e. usr>
f. usr/username

Question 8: Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding the UNIX environment?

a. It has the provision of security through the login and passwd programs.
b. In it the file names are not case insensitive.
c. It has the provision of various commands and utilities for file and directory manipulation.
d. It does not allow relative path names.
e. It allows the use of wild-card characters forfile-name expansion.

Question 9: Which of the following is a responsibility of the system administrator?

a. Setting permissions for files and directories
b. Creation of users and group-ids
c. Providing security through the use of passwords
d. a and c
e. a,b and c

Question 10: You want to declare a variable vs with the value hello. Which of the following declarations is correct ?

a. vs = ‘hello’
b. vs-hello?
c. vs=hello
d. a or b
e. b or c

Question 11: What control character signals the end of the file ?

a. Ctrl+a
b. Ctrl+b
c. Ctrl+c
d. Ctrl+d
e. Ctrl+e

Question 12: Which of the following commands will you use to send the contents of a file named abc to a user named Raven by mail?

a. mail raven>abc
b. mail raven<
c. mail raven«abc
d. mail raven abc

Question 13: What option of the sort filter would you use if you want to save the output on a disk file ?

a. -r
b. -f
c. -n
d. -t
e. -o

Question 14: Which command prints the current working directory ?

a. pwd
b. cd
c. Is
d. mv
e. cp

Question 15: Which option of the uniq command would you use to display only those lines which have a multiple occurrence ?

a. -u
b. -d
c. -c
d. -l
e. -r

Question 16: Which of the following commands can be used to change group ownership of a file/directory?

a. chmod
b. chgroup
c. chgrp
d. grpch

Question 17: The find command:

a. searches for specific patterns of characters in file.
b. is used for locating words in a file.
c. Is used to locate files in a directory and in all subdirectories of that directory.
d. can only be used by the administrator.
e. is used for locating users in a network.

Question 18: With regard to UNIX, a process is:

a. the name of a command.
b. the name of the administrator.
c. the name of the UNIX server.
d. a program in a state of execution
e. another name for a file.

Question 19: Which of the following locations store the information about the currently installed Software on a local system?

a. /var/adm/sw/install
b. /var/adm/sw/software
c. /var/adm/sw/recent
d. /var/adm/sw/products

Question 20: Which of the following commands can be used to communicate directly with other users by sending messages?

a. $ msg
b. $ talk
c. $ send
d. $ call

Question 21: Which file contains the commands run by all users at login?

a. /usr/init
b. /usr/profile
c. /usr/startup
d. /etc/startup
e. /etc/profile

Question 22: Which command is used for splitting a file horizontally?

a. cut
b. head
c. tail
d. b and c
e. a, b and c

Question 23: Which error will you see when an NFS client can no longer access mounted file system?

a. File Not Found
b. Stale File Handle
c. Invalid Command
d. File Inaccessible

Question 24: By which command can you move to a different directory ?

a. pwd
b. cd
c. ls
d. mv
e. rm

Question 25: What communication command provides communication to another user logged on by writing to the bottom of their terminal ?

a. talk
b. write
c. chat
d. talkto
e. transmit

Question 26: Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding processes ?

a. More than one process can be active even if there is only one processor.
b. A background process runs as a child process of the shell.
c. If the parent process is killed.then always, the child process is also terminated,
d. A process can be killed by pressing the ctrl+c keys.
e. A process can be killed by the kill command.

Question 27: Which of the following characters can be used to run multiple commands on a single line?

a. /
b. :
c. ,
d. ;

Question 28: Which filter will you use to translate a set of charaters to another ?

a. grep
b. cut
c. tr
d. wc
e. tee

Question 29: Which character of the grep filter specifies that the pattern preceding it must occur at the end of each line ?

a. []
b. ^
c. $
d. .
e. \

Question 30: The file oldies-goldies has the details of the sale of books. The records are sorted on the names of the authors and are as follows

Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
Gerald Durrell
Giovanni Guareschi
Giovanni Guareschi
James Herriot
Louisa May Alcott
Louisa May Alcott
Louisa May Alcott

Based on the above information, what will be the output of the command

uniq -u oldies-goldies ?

a. Gerald Durrell
b. James Herriot
c. Gerald Durrell
    James Herriot
d. Alexandre Dumas
    Gerald Durrell
    Giovanni Guareschi
    James Herriot
    Louisa May Alcott

e. Louisa May Alcott

Question 31: What is the number of fields in each line in /etc/passwd file?

a. 3
b. 4
c. 5
d. 6
e. 7

Question 32: Which key combination instructs the shell to terminate the session ?

a. Ctrl + q
b. Ctrl + d
c. Ctrl + s
d. Ctrl + r
e. Ctrl + z

Question 33: Which command gives all differences between two files ?

a. filecmp
b. filecompare
c. filediff
d. diff

Question 34: What is the file descriptor for the standard output file ?

a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3
e. 4

Question 35: Which command enables you to concatenate files ?

a. cp
b. mv
c. concat
d. ls
e. cat

Question 36: Point out the incorrect statement regarding standard input, output and error:

a. The terminal is the standard source for input and the standard output and standard error destination for most UNIX commands.
b. All data sources and destinations are treated as files in UNIX.
c. The three standard files have a file descriptor
    0 – standard output file
    1 – standard input file
    2 – standard error file

d. The input. output and error output can be redirected to a file other than the standard file using file descriptors and the > or < symbol.
e. The output and error can be redirected in the append mode to add the redirected output or error to an existing file using the » symbol.

Question 37: Which of the following is not a filter?

a. sort
b. grep
c. uniq
d. P9
e. echo

Question 38: Which of the following files is configured for login name, login directory and login shell variables?

a. /etc/profile
b. /etc/home
c. /etc/passwd
d. /etc/conf

Question 39: Which keystroke combination sends or signals an interrupt request to a process ?

a. Ctrl+c
b. Ctrl+d
c. Ctrl+u
d. Ctrl+s
e. Ctrl+q

Question 40: By which command a user can add a password for his login name?

a. passwd
b. pass
c. chpass
d. password
e. setpass

Gevorg G. Harutyunyan <![CDATA[Install WEB server (LAMP) on Ubuntu with Firewall, Phpmyadmin and Firewall]]> 2012-12-01T10:53:38Z 2012-11-28T13:17:24Z Related posts:
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Installing LAMP server
  1. Update source
    apt-get update
  2. Install Vim
    apt-get install vim
  3. Install tasksel
    apt-get install tasksel
  4. Install LAMP (with tasksel)
    • type
    • select LAMP and install
  5. Install phpmyadmin
    apt-get install phpmyadmin
  6. Install vsftpd
    apt-get install vsftpd


    vim /etc/vsftpd.conf

    Write into file

    	service vsftpd restart

Setting up firewall with iptables


  1. Create firewall file
    vim /etc/

    Write firewall rules inside file

    # Allow outgoing traffic and disallow any passthroughs
    $IPT -A INPUT -j LOG
    $IPT -F
    $IPT -X
    $IPT -t nat -F
    $IPT -t nat -X
    $IPT -t mangle -F
    $IPT -t mangle -X
    # Allow traffic already established to continue
    # Allow ssh, dns, ldap, ftp and web services
    #$IPT -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ssh -i eth0 -j ACCEPT
    #$IPT -A INPUT -p tcp --dport domain -i eth0 -j ACCEPT
    #$IPT -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ldap -i eth0 -j ACCEPT
    #$IPT -A INPUT -p udp --dport ldap -i eth0 -j ACCEPT
    #$IPT -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ftp -i eth0 -j ACCEPT
    #$IPT -A INPUT -p udp --dport ftp -i eth0 -j ACCEPT
    #$IPT -A INPUT -p tcp --dport ftp-data -i eth0 -j ACCEPT
    #$IPT -A INPUT -p udp --dport ftp-data -i eth0 -j ACCEPT
    $IPT -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -i eth0 -j ACCEPT
    $IPT -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 443 -i eth0 -j ACCEPT
    #$IPT -A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT
    # Allow local loopback services
    $IPT -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
    # Allow all from and to Boomerang
    $IPT -A INPUT   -j ACCEPT -p all -s
    $IPT -A INPUT   -j ACCEPT -p all -s
    $IPT -A INPUT   -j ACCEPT -p all -s
    #local Networks
    $IPT -A INPUT   -j ACCEPT -p all -s
    $IPT -A INPUT   -j ACCEPT -p all -s
    # allow certain inbound ICMP types (ping, traceroute..)
    $IPT -A INPUT -i eth0 -p icmp --icmp-type destination-unreachable -j ACCEPT
    $IPT -A INPUT -i eth0 -p icmp --icmp-type time-exceeded -j ACCEPT
    $IPT -A INPUT -i eth0 -p icmp --icmp-type echo-reply -j ACCEPT
    $IPT -A INPUT -i eth0 -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
  2. Make file executable
    sudo chmod +x /etc/
  3. Enable IPTables to load on system boot
    echo "pre-up /etc/" >> /etc/network/interfaces
  4. Make Firewall flush Script
    vim /etc/

    Write firewall rules inside file

    echo "Flushing iptables rules..."
    sleep 1
    iptables -F
    iptables -X
    iptables -t nat -F
    iptables -t nat -X
    iptables -t mangle -F
    iptables -t mangle -X
    iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
    iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT
    iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT

Backup Management

  1. Create user
    adduser baskupuser
  2. create Script
    vim /home/baskupuser/Backups/Scripts/
  3. Write into file
    # Backup Hosting Server.#
    # What to backup. 
    # Where to backup to.
    # Create archive filename.
    day=$(date +%A)
    hostname=$(hostname -s)
    # Print start status message.
    echo "Backing up all MySQL Databases to /home/MySQL_Backups/MySQL-data-$day.sql.gz"
    # Backup all MySQL databases
    mysqldump -u root -pSQLPASSWORD --all-databases | gzip > /home/MySQL_Backups/MySQL-data-$day.sql.gz
    # Print start status message.
    echo "Backing up $backup_files to $dest/$archive_file"
    # Backup the files using tar.
    tar czf $dest/$archive_file  --exclude baskupuser $backup_files
    # Print end status message.
    echo "----------------"
    echo "Backup finished"
    # Long listing of files in $dest to check file sizes.
    ls -lh $dest
    echo "=============================================================================="
  4. Makeing file executible
    sudo chmod +x /home/baskupuser/Backups/Scripts/
  5. Create /home/MySQL_Backups folder
    mkdir /home/MySQL_Backups
  6. Adding cron job
    crontab -e

    Write into file

    # Daily run backup script.
    	0 0 * * * sh /home/baskupuser/Backups/Scripts/ >> /home/baskupuser/Backups/Scripts/backup.log
Gevorg G. Harutyunyan <![CDATA[Protected: oDesk TCP/IP Test Questions and Answers Discussions]]> 2013-10-06T21:09:32Z 2012-09-03T11:33:52Z Related posts:
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Gevorg G. Harutyunyan <![CDATA[ESXi – ERROR: failed to locate and extract VM_ID for MachineName [HowTo]]]> 2013-10-15T12:36:38Z 2012-07-30T09:00:31Z Related posts:
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When You run in dryrun mode on ESXi to backup virtual machines, You get:
ERROR: failed to locate and extract VM_ID for MachineName

In my example problem was that MachineName contains brackets, after renaming virtual machine problem was solved

Gevorg G. Harutyunyan <![CDATA[Comparison: Ubuntu 12.04 vs Windows 8 [Review]]]> 2012-06-06T05:06:08Z 2012-06-05T12:39:36Z Related posts:
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While Microsoft still hasn’t announced a release date for Windows 8, rumour has it that it’ll hit the shelves later this year. For the record, this will be the third straight time a major Windows version is launched close to the release of arguably the world’s most popular Linux distro – Ubuntu.

Ubuntu and Canonical have cornea long way since their 7.04 Feisty Fawn release, which followed Microsoft’s Windows Vista. Back then. Canonical failed to capitalize on Vista’s universal rejection by its users.

If reviews of the Windows 8 Consumer Preview are any indication, it’ll be a very cold winter for Microsoft. But, more importantly for the Linux community, does Ubuntu 12.04 have what it takes to position itself as a more usable alternative?

The Ubuntu advantage

It’s ironic how the one feature in recent Ubuntu releases that might have lost it some users will now work in its favor and attract new users by the bucket-load. We are, obviously, talking about Unity.

Microsoft’s revolutionary Metro desktop is already facing criticism similar to that Canonical fielded when it Introduced Unity on the desktop. They listened, learned and they evolved.

Furthermore, Windows 8 is a major departure from how Microsoft does desktops ֊ offline installations that could connect to each other. Now, with Windows 8, you have an online desktop designed to deliver the best of the cloud to your visually new desktop.

It can do things in a way that no version of Windows ever could before. And we in the Linux world know what that means, right?

Be it with KDE 4. Gnome 3, or Unity, suddenly introducing new paradigms and a dramatic new way of doing things displeases users. And while the changes might be new to Windows they have long been mainstays on the Linux desktop in general, and Ubuntu in particular.

In this feature, we’ll attempt to ascertain if Ubuntu’s maturity and flexibility, and Its range of options will score over Windows 8‘s radically different new desktop paradigms.

The Desktops

Both Canonical’s Unity and Microsoft’s Metro are unconventional desktops. So much so, In fact, that most of our testers first thought we were pulling a fast one on them when we invited them to give us their feedback tor this feature.

Unity vs Metro

Windows Phone 7 users did recognize the Windows tiles interface, but having to navigate it with a mouse negated their familiarity with the interface. Others were simply at a loss as to how to proceed. Everyone’s first impulse was to figure out a way to ‘get to the desktop”.

Unity, too, was different from what most Windows (and non-Ubuntu) users were used to. But it still didn’t appear to be as ‘outlandish’ as Metro. Many simply thought of Unity’s launchers as shortcuts mounted on a panel, and then used them as such to launch their apps. On the other hand, usability-wise, the Metro Tiles looked out of place on a 23-inch Full HD monitor.

Even after we familiarized the group with the basic operations of the Metro desktop, many didn’t discover some of its crucial elements. For example, most users didn’t realize that they could influence the tiles by right-clicking on them.

A lot didn’t know they could add tiles for things from within apps (such as their IM contacts), but they all appreciated the ability to do so when informed about the feature. Those who had read, reviews knew about the & Charms bar and how to bring I it up, but others just discovered it by accident. Obviously, not everybody had a smooth experience with Unity, especially first-time users. But their inconveniences with Unity’s way of doing things were resolved easily after a quick glance at the Ubuntu Features page ( The most common issues were spotting the Lens icons at the bottom especially on larger displays, and finding apps that weren’t already pinned to the launcher. The traditional-looking desktop in Windows 8 is labeled, aptly ‘Desktop’.

It behaves like Windows desktops have in the past, and looks almost the same, too֊ we say almost because it lacks the one crucial bit that most users identify with Windows, the trademark ‘Start’ button. Thanks to this feature most were as lost at the Start screen as they were on the Metro Tiles.

Scrolling horizontally is still perceived as being pretty much a mobile concept, and it didn’t go down well with the majority of our testers. Even the notifications in Windows 8 are written for a touch-based environment.

Hot Corners

Once again, we jumped to the testers’ rescue and showed them the Windows 8 Hot Corners.

The idea of Hot Corners seemed sensible only to users familiar with their implementations in either Mac OS or Ubuntu Unity. However, much to their disappointment, the Start Hot Corner button returns them to the Windows 8 tile-laden Start screen, from which they had just escaped. Not surprisingly, the first thing most Windows users tried to customize was to figure out a way to get back the traditional Start button and behavior.

Despite the fact that Unity was as foreign to most users as Metro, they could find and launch apps they wanted, and use the desktop as they were used to, irrespective of the OS they came from.

All apps under Unity had the familiar window controls to minimize, maximize and close them – something sorely missing from the full-screen Windows 8 Metro apps.

Designed for touch
The fact that Windows 8 is designed with touchscreen devices in mind is pretty much obvious from the moment you boot up the OS. From the tile-laden Start screen to the Metro interface, the entire OS is designed to be completely operable by the five digits on each hand. So much so that even in the more traditional Windows 8Desktop, browsing through open apps and switching between them requires you to junk how you’ve been performing these actions. To Microsoft’s credit, though, they have designed probably the best touchscreen interface we’ve seen to date. The actions and gestures to launch apps, cycle through open ones, close them, or send them to the background is pretty impressive on a touchscreen.Unity is designed with a touchscreen device in mind as well, but it’s still a few paces off Windows 8. For starters, the traditional window controls help it score over Windows 8 on a regular desktop, but are difficult to tap on a touchscreen. Cycling through open windows is another task that’s still not optimized for touch.

Even the notifications in Windows 8 are written for a touch-based environment.

Best Windows 8 features
We cherry-picked Linux users from our bunch of testers, and asked them to jot down their favorite Windows 8features, which they think will enhance usability and productivity of the Windows desktop user.Interactive tiles:The Metro app tiles do more than just open apps. They also display live data in the tiles. Our Linux testers agreed that this will enhance productivity, provided they can customize what information is displayed in the tiles. So, for example, while they like the Music app tile, which displays info about the current track they would like to turn off the Mail tile, which displays snippets of their unread emails.Improved task manager and File Copy tool:Both apps are more verbose than ever, and allow users more control. Most users liked the Performance and App History tabs of the task manager and the ability to pause file transfers in the File Copy window.SkyDrive integration: Although Microsoft’s
SKyDrive service has been around for some time now, its tight integration in Windows 8 is definitely one of the highlights of this release.

Split-screen apps: Metro apps can be stacked besides one another neatly. Our testers believe this will be a useful feature for users with widescreens.

Mounting ISOs: Starting with Windows 8, users will be able to mount ISOs on virtual drives simply by double-clicking them.

Customising the desktop

With 12.04, Ubuntu has refined further its simplified consolidated System Settings window. Users can now make the launcher a permanent fixture on the desktop, as well as tweak its behavior for multi-monitor set-ups, which was a much-requested feature by Linux users. This was well received by our bunch of testers, who had pre-conceived notions about the difficulty of setting up Linux.

Their experience with setting up Windows 8 was rather interesting. Their first instinct was to look for the Control Panel which isn’t readily accessible, at least under the Consumer Preview. It shows up when you bring up the Charms bar under the Desktop view, but not under the main Start screen. This discrepancy wasn’t noticed by many users. Like Ubuntu 12.04, Windows 8, too, tries to simplify its settings options, with the most common settings accessible from under the Charms bar.

Other advanced settings, such as the BitLocker encryption, are still accessible via the Control Panel, or you can search directly for them from the Start screen. While most didn’t figure out the location of the Charms bar on their own, all our testers appreciated Windows 8‘s style of segregating its settings, making commonly used settings more readily accessible than less frequently used ones.

Accessing hidden features

Another similarity between Ubuntu 12.04 and Windows 8 is their focus on making less visible features, buried beneath nested menus, easily accessible. Windows 8 is tackling this issue by adding an MS Office-like Ribbon to its Windows Explorer, while Ubuntu’s solution is the Heads Up Display (HUD).

Still, most of our testers preferred to stick to the Context menu when working with Windows Explorer According to Microsoft, Windows Explorer has more than 200 functions (a fact we shared with our testers), but many simply continued using it to just look at and launch files.

Surprisingly, HUD got more looks than we expected, even though it forces people to abandon the mouse and use the keyboard. Linux users in general, and Ubuntu users in particular, appreciated the time-saving facet of HUD and how it seamlessly performs system-wide settings, such as setting up VPN, as well as app-specific actions such as saving a document or opening a bookmarked page.

Unity 5 Keyboard Shortcuts

Most testers thought of Ubuntu as being far more appreciative of traditional desktop navigation controls (keyboard and mouse) than Windows 8.

The Applications

While Windows has always shipped with some pre-installed apps, no Windows version has ever been as usable out of the box as Ubuntu. That’s all set to change with Windows 8, which ships not only with a wide gamut of apps, but also an Ubuntu Software Center-esque online app store.

Factory-fitted apps

Windows 8 supports two types of apps: those that are designed for its new Metro desktop, called Metre apps, and the legacy apps that do not conform with the Metro guidelines. The Consumer Preview has several of both.

One of the apps that most impressed our testers is the Windows Reader, which can read PDFs. It has also got several view modes, and even enables users to highlight text and add notes to documents.

Net loss

On the other hand, the app that our testers were most disappointed with was Internet Explorer. To be fair, they weren’t disappointed by the app itself, rather by its implementation. IE is bundled both as a Metro app and a non-metro app. Unfortunately, the apps look and behave differently depending cn which version of the app you’re using.

This turned off users big on standardization, and confused others, who just couldn’t figure out why the address bar jumped from the top to the bottom of the screen. On the Ubuntu desktop, it was business as usual – it bundles apps for handling all types of files users throw at it. i For media files it couldn’t play. I it offered to download the ‘ respective codecs with one click, which was something all our testers could do.

Despite Windows 8 having an expanded collection of apps, it still lacks several important options, such as a fully-fledged Office suite. For enterprise user

Despite Windows 8 having an expanded collection of apps, it still lacks several important options, such as a fully-fledged Office suite. For enterprise user

Starting with Windows 8. users will be able to download and purchase Microsoft-certified Metro apps directly off the wires ֊ something we Linux users h3ve been doing fora long tine.

All our testers had a positive experience with the Windows 8 Store, which worked as advertised. It’s still under development, and although its repository of apps is nowhere closes to Ubuntu’s, expect a lot more apps when it nears release.

Although there’s little difference between the online stores in Windows and Ubuntu, the more advanced users noticed that there’s no provision to install Metro apps from other sources by adding third-party repositories, as with the Ubuntu Software Center.

One major advantage of Ubuntu that every tester noted was the integration of USC within the Applications lens in Unity.

The ability to directly download apps without launching another app was a hit with first-time users.

Maximizing real estate

One of the main Ideas behind both Metro and Unity is to best utilize the available screen real estate – which is why the Metro apps in Windows 8 run full-screen with no window controls. To close Metro apps, users need to grab them from the top and drag them towards the bottom of the screen, before releasing them into oblivion. This is something none of our users could figure out intuitively on their own. They tried the Alt+F4 key combo and. thankfully, it still worked.

Unity in Ubuntu 12.04 also hides the window control, but testers who were used to the global menus in Mac and previous Ubuntu versions v/ere able to find them with relative ease. Also, while Unity now coesn’t auto hide the launcher by default, this behavior can be tweaked easily enough from within the system settings.

All our testers preferred Unity’s way of giving apps maximum screen real estate. They’d rather sacrifice a sliver of the screen, and have the global menu with the window controls and the familiar file menu.

Background apps

Since both OSes now run apps in full-screen windows, they’ve had to devise ways of alerting users when an app in the background requires their attention. This is one area where Windows 8 scores partially over Ubuntu.

For example, while Windows was busy downloading an apo using the Windows Store Metro app. users switched to other Metro apps. When the app was downloaded and installed. Windows briefly flashed a message that the app was installed. If a user hadn’t been on the computer, they would have missed the message.

But if the background task is on the traditional-looking desktop, for example a file copy operation, then it behaves much as in Windows 7 – the progress is tracked by an animated icon in the taskbar, which starts flashing and changes color when the task is completed, and continues behaving this way until the user brings the window in focus.

Ubuntu, on the other hard, notifies a user of a completed activity by wiggling its icon in the launcher. It looks nice, and grabs your attention if you’re looking at the screen. But the animation lasts only a couple of seconds, and users who aren’t at the computer won’t be any wiser when they return.

App switching

Microsoft has devised a new way of switching between apps using the mouse. To reveal all open Metro apps, you have to first move your mouse to the upper-left corner of the screen.

This will reveal the most recent app. If you then move the mouse alongside the left edge of the screen, you’ll be shown all your open apps.

Instead of rewiring their neurons, most of our testers decided to continue using the Alt+Tab keyboard combination, which was unanimously voted as the faster way to switch between apps.

Metro Desktop

Also, our bunch didn’t like the fact that they couldn’t switch between Metro apps and non-Metro apps at the same time. That’s because the Desktop is a Metro app itself! So in the app switcher, the Desktop shows up as a single window, even If it has multiple apps running inside it.

Native applications for Windows 8 use a concoction of HTML5 and JavaScript to get maximum mileage out of the new touch-based Metro Ul.

Many of our testers wondered if they’d be able to install and run legacy Windows apps, and if so, how these apps would behave in this new environment.

To test this out, we downloaded a couple of freely-available V/indows 7 apps. and tried installing them on :op of Windows 8. Much to the deligh: of our testers, they all installed without a hitch. Although not designed for Metro, these apps do install a tile in the Windows 8 Start screen, which more or less acts like a shortcut to launch these apps in the traditional-looking Desktop.

Microsoft also claims that it has put effort into making the classic desktop more touch-friendly. especially to account for the fact that fingers aren’t as accurate as the traditional pointing device – the mouse. This works well for legacy apps which, although designed for a keyboard and mouse, work well with touchscreens, too.

On the other hand, app integration in Ubuntu’s Unity has matured quite a bit since it was first introduced last year. 12.04 flawlessly ran all non-Unity apps our testers threw at it. and even KDE apps feel at home in Unity, and even adhere to the global menu.

For enterprise users
Both Ubuntu 12.04 and Windows 8 ship with features that’ll appeal to the enterprise desktop user as well. For starters, they aim to cut down on tool proliferation by baking several common enterprise functionalities in the OS itself, such as mounting ISO and Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) images.
Microsoft has tweaked its forced restart policy when applying security patches. It’s also increasing its notice period before it automatically restarts the system from, the default 20 minutes for Windows 7 to three days for Windows 8 – and that, too, if you have no apps running in the background.
Then there’s the most talked-about enterprise-centric feature of all. known as WindowsToGo. With this feature, companies will be able to provide a streamlined Windows 8 installation to their mobile users on an encrypted USB thumb drive.
Ubuntu’s biggest advantage for enterprise users over Windows, however, is that it doesn’t distinguish artificially between the home user and the business user. In addition, Ubuntu 12.04 is a Long Term Support (LTS) release which is designed to align with a typical enterprise’s long support cycles. Still, in addition to the regular release. Canonical is also working on a special Ubuntu Business Desktop version of the distro.
Reset and refresh PCs
Two features that almost brought tears to the eyes of most of our testers who used Windows regularly, were the options to Reset and Refresh their Windows 8installations.As the name suggests, the Refresh feature leaves all the user’s files, settings. Metro apps. and apps downloaded from the Microsoft store and clears out the rest ֊ system hogs such as toolbars, adware and unwanted apps.
The Reset function is a bit more severe -it wipes a Windows 8installation completely.It’s advertised as an ideal solution if you’re planning to give away the PC.Again, like most things Windows 8. the ability to zap the installation to its factory defaults isn’t exclusive to Windows, but is more involved in Ubuntu, and definitely not as newbie-proof as on Windows 8.
Our testers liked the fact that Windows 8 now enables them to update all Metro apps at the same time from within the Windows Store.

Our testers liked the fact that Windows 8 now enables them to update all Metro apps at the same time from within the Windows Store.

Cloud Integration

Windows 8 is being hailed as the most revolutionary Windows release ever, not just because of its interface, but because it’s redefining how Microsoft looks at Windows installations.

One of the most widely talked-about features is its acceptance of the cloud, and how it’s used to deliver synchronized installations, much like Ubuntu.

Synchronized accounts

Starting with Windows 8. users will now be able to create online accounts that will associate their settings with a Microsoft account. Their settings go with them when they sign in to any Windows 8 machine with the credentials of this online account.

Not all our testers could wrap their heads around the concept of online accounts, especially the every-day Windows users They had been creating offline Windows user accounts forever, and it wasn’t a surprise that many chose to do so, even with Windows 8.

The geekier of our testers went ahead and created themselves an online account, and didn’t have any complaints when navigating the Account Creation wizard. They also appreciated the control they had over what settings are synced. Although Ubuntu doesn’t yet have such levels of user account synchronization, its OneConf mechanism is integrated with the Ubuntu Software Center and its Ubuntu One Cloud service to replicate installed apps across Ubuntu installations.

Cloud storage

Windows 8 is big on the cloud. In addition to its online account feature, it also enables you to connect to various cloud-based services, including its own SkyDrive file-hosting service.

Windows 8‘s cloud integration was well received by all our testers. But as with other aspects of the OS inspired by Linux, online storage was something that made more sense to Ubuntu users who had been using Canonicals Ubuntu One service since the last few releases.

SkyDrive offers 25GB of free space compared to Ubuntu One's 5GB. Ubuntu 12.04 is big on privacy.

SkyDrive offers 25GB of free space compared to Ubuntu One's 5GB. Ubuntu 12.04 is big on privacy.

There are several similarities between Microsoft’s SkyDrive and Canonical’s Ubuntu One service. Although our testers could upload files to the SkyDrive service, they couldn’t figure out how to back up their computer to it automatically, as with Ubuntu One and Deja Dup. Add to this the fact that the Ubuntu One service has a new control panel and a streamlined setup wizard, which all our testers could navigate easily to add and remove folders for automatic synchronization.

Ubuntu 12.04 is big on privacy.

Ubuntu 12.04 is big on privacy.

Social desktop

Another aspect of Windows 8‘s cloud focus that surprised several testers is its new ability to hook users into their online life. After setting up their online accounts, users in Windows 8 could connect to their accounts on online services such as Facebook. Twitter and Flickr.

On Ubuntu, this same functionality is extended by the MeMenu. The only difference is that, while Ubuntu users knew the app that was passing on the IM conversations or bringing in and broadcasting messages over Twitter and Facebook, on Windows the users knew these apps only by their function, such as mail, or messaging. Needless to say, this dumbing down’ didn’t please the more advanced users.

Even more surprising is the fact that despite being easy to set up and configure. Windows 8‘s social desktop was turned down by some existing Windows users. While some still found it all a bit too complex, many said that they shunned it because they weren’t used to interacting with their friends in this manner.

The one app that was appreciated universally by both Windows and Ubuntu users was the Photos app. especially its ability to email photos directly off the app itself, without configuring traditional emailing programs such as Outlook. Also, no one could point fingers at the implementation cf the various online apps. Even novices could compose messages using the Mail app. add contacts from the People app. and include attachments from the local disk along with files from SkyDrive or from within the Photos app.

Privacy measures

Various apps in both Ubuntu and Windows store lots of information about their users and how they’re working with the computer. Most of this info is used for convenience purposes, for example to get you quickly to the last-used file, or to send anonymous usage statistics to the developer for improving the app or the OS itself. One of the highlights of Ubuntu 12.04 is its Privacy Control Panel. All our testers could use the panel to delete their activities Advanced users appreciated the control they had over which activity is logged and which isn’t, based on applications, file types 3nd locations.

In comparison, Windows 8 has fewer privacy control options, and these are scattered all over the place. Under the Privacy options in PC Settings, users could stop apps from accessing their location, as well as their account name and picture. But they couldn’t customise the behaviour for individual apps, as they could in Ubuntu. It only gets worse from here. Very few could figure oJt how to clear their personal info displayed in the tiles of the various online apps, such as email. And no user was even aware that they could tweak their right-click Jumplists to hide recently opened items and programs.

Touchy subject

One thing all our testers agreed on with respect to Windows 8 is that it’s an impressive touchscreen OS. Even Ubuntu users couldn’t deny Metro’s usability edge over Unity, on a touchscreen in its current form.

But as a desktop OS, Windows 8 got a universal thumbs down from our testers They didn’t like being faced to use an OS designed primarily for touchscreen devices with limited real estate, such as a tablet or phone, on their multi-core desktops with widescreen FullHD displays. Ubuntu’s Unity had pretty much the same criticisms in its early incarnations, but they have evolved since. In fact, much to our surprise, existing Ubuntu users had a much smoother experience with Windows 8 than existing Windows users!

When all is said and done, while existing Windows users were amazed by Windows 8‘s new-found cloud antics, our Ubuntu users were far less excited, since they have been using their Linux distro in this fashion for quite a while new.

Despite the fact that Windows 8 does some things better than Ubuntu (user account syncs lor example), most agreed there wasn’t anything jaw-dropping about Windows 8‘s implementation of age-old Ubuntu tricks.

Source: LXF159

Gevorg G. Harutyunyan <![CDATA[Ubuntu 12.04 [Review]]]> 2014-06-06T06:42:34Z 2012-06-05T10:27:08Z Related posts:
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Canonical has released Ubuntu 12.04. its fourth long-term support (LTS) release. Unlike standard Ubuntu releases, which come every six months and integrate majo՜ new technologies, the focus of any LTS release is to provide a secure, stable platform that businesses and demanding home users can rely on.

Usually, this means an uninspiring release – few new features for users to play with, just lots of incremental improvements that everyore welcomes but nobody feels excited about. Ubuntu 12.04 is different, however, being the first LTS release tc feature Unity as its default desktop environment.

Has Canonical delivered a desktop that users of the last LTS can confidently upgrade to. or will they be left cold when support for it is ended in April 2013. a year before the next one is released9 The answer is yes – mostly.

Unity has become much faster and more reliable. In our testing, we found that it remained responsive even when running half-a-dozen applications and ripping a DVD. a taxing workload for most machines, suggesting that upgrading users have little to worry about in this regard.

We also found that the Dash works well. It’s easy to access, whether by clicking the Ubuntu icon with the mouse or pressing the Windows key. and once you’re in it. the built-in search quickly finds the aoplications and files that you’re looking for. The new HUD feature does the same for most application menus, too. and if you’ve net used it. it’s worth trying.

Unity's Dash

Unity's Dash is a quick way to find all your files and applications.

Best of all. animations and other visual cues have been refined to the pcint where they add to the experience of using Unity and make day-to-day computing a pleasurable experience -we actually looked forward to using it each day. A good example of this is the way that applications added to the launcher are always placed above the workspace switcher, removable devices and rubbish bin helping to make access to these devices consistent, no matter what changes you make.

All that adds up to a reliable and comfortable experience. Our only concern was the way application title bars are integrated into the top panel. Although it’s consistent within its own perimeters, it feels alien and awkward. We’d like to see if Canonicals user testing has turned up any data on this.

Beyond Unity

The rest of the distribution feels equally polished. The installer is still second to ncne ֊ it’s better than any other Linux distribution’s, and it’s better than what Windows or Mac OS X has to offer.

The Software Centre, too. has come on leaps and bounds. We love that the search turns up only application packages, and doesn’t mix libraries and other obscurities in to the results.

We also love the growing collection of reviews and paid software, which make the Software Centre and its contents feel valuable. On top of all these Ubuntu-specific features, there’s the usual selection of great open source applications present in all distributions. In particular, this Ubuntu release benefits from new versions of Firefox and LibreOffice, both of which have made substantial improvements since the last LTS release.

We wouldn’t hesitate to advise users to upgrade. We’d also encourage any users who haven’t tried Ubuntu in a while, or moved away to another distribution with the arrival of Unity, to give it another go.

Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Videos

Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Top 10 Features

Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Screenshots

Ubuntu 12.04 Desktop

Developer Canonical
Price Free
Features 9/10
Performance 9/10
Ease of use 9/10
Documentation 9/10
Ubuntu has set the standard by which all other Linux distributions will be judged.


Source: LXF159

Gevorg G. Harutyunyan <![CDATA[AppThemes Jobroller 1.6 doesn’t send emails]]> 2012-07-30T08:55:34Z 2012-05-29T13:11:11Z Related posts:
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AppThemes Jobroller 1.6 doesn’t send emails installed on GoDaddy Linux hosting.


  1. Install WP-Mail-SMTP Plugin for wordpress
  2. Go to plugin settings and set theses values:
    From Email Email wich will show as From
    Mailer Send all WordPress emails via SMTP.
    SMTP Host localhost
    Encryption No encryption.
    Authentication Do not use SMTP authentication.
    Username LEAVE BLANK
    Password LEAVE BLANK
  3. Test Settings
Gevorg G. Harutyunyan <![CDATA[brushtopbm [Command]]]> 2012-05-22T07:44:16Z 2012-05-22T07:44:16Z Related posts:
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Command brushtopbm

brushtopbm — Convert a doodle brush file into a portable bitmap


brushtopbm [brushfile]


brushtopbm reads a Xerox doodle brush file as input and produces a portable bitmap as output.
Note that there is currently no pbmtobrush tool.

See also