Command bitmap, bmtoa, atobm
bitmap, bmtoa, atobm — Bitmap editor and converter utilities for the X Window System
bitmap [ –options ...][filename ][basename ]
bmtoa [ –chars ...][filename ]
atobm [ –chars cc ][–name variable ][–xhot number ][–yhot number ][filename ]
The bitmap program is a rudimentary tool for creating or editing rectangular images made up of 1s and 0s. Bitmaps are used in X for defining clipping regions, cursor shapes, icon shapes, and tile and stipple patterns.
The bmtoa and atobm filters convert bitmap files (FILE FORMAT) to and from ASCII strings. They are most commonly used to quickly print out bitmaps and to generate versions for including in text.
Bitmap supports the standard X Toolkit command-line arguments; see X. The following additional arguments are supported as well:
|–size WIDTHxHEIGHT||Specifies size of the grid in squares.|
|–sw dimension||Specifies the width of squares in pixels.|
|–sh dimension||Specifies the height of squares in pixels.|
|–gt dimension||Grid tolerance. If the square dimensions fall below the specified value, grid will be automatically turned off.|
|–grid, +grid||Turns on or off the grid lines.|
|–axes, +axes||Turns on or off the major axes.|
|–dashed, +dashed||Turns on or off dashing for the frame and grid lines.|
|–stippled, +stippled||Turns on or off stippling of highlighted squares.|
|–proportional, +proportional||Turns proportional mode on or off. If proportional mode is on, square width is equal to square height. If proportional mode is off, bitmap will use the smaller square dimension, if they were initially different.|
|–dashes filename||Specifies the bitmap to be used as a stipple for dashing.|
|–stipple filename||Specifies the bitmap to be used as a stipple for highlighting.|
|–hl color||Specifies the color used for highlighting.|
|–fr color||Specifies the color used for the frame and grid lines.|
|filename||Specifies the bitmap to be initially loaded into the program. If the file does not exist, bitmap will assume it is a new file.|
|basename||Specifies the basename to be used in the C code output file. If it is different than the basename in the working file, bitmap will change it when saving the file.|
bmtoa accepts the following option:
|–chars cc||This option specifies the pair of characters to use in the string version of the bitmap. The first character is used for 0 bits and the second character is used for 1 bits. The default is to use dashes (-) for 0s and number signs (#) for 1s.|
atobm accepts the following options:
|–chars cc||This option specifies the pair of characters to use when converting string bitmaps into arrays of numbers. The first character represents a 0 bit and the second character represents a 1 bit. The default is to use dashes (–) for 0s and number signs (#) for 1s.|
|–name variable||This option specifies the variable name to be used when writing out the bitmap file. The default is to use the basename of the filename command-line argument or leave it blank if the standard input is read.|
|–xhot number||This option specifies the X coordinate of the hot spot. Only positive values are allowed. By default, no hot spot information is included.|
|–yhot number||This option specifies the Y coordinate of the hot spot. Only positive values are allowed. By default, no hot spot information is included.|
bitmap displays grid in which each square represents a single bit in the picture being edited. Actual size of the bitmap image, as it would appear normally and inverted, can be obtained by pressing Meta-I. You are free to move the image pop-up out of the way to continue editing. Pressing the left mouse button in the pop-up window or Meta-I again will remove the real size bitmap image.
If the bitmap is to be used for defining a cursor, one of the squares in the images may be designated as the hot spot. This determines where the cursor is actually pointing. For cursors with sharp tips (such as arrows or fingers), this is usually at the end of the tip; for symmetric cursors (such as crosses or bulls-eyes), this is usually at the center.
Bitmaps are stored as small C code fragments suitable for including in applications. They provide an array of bits as well as symbolic constants giving the width, height, and hot spot (if specified) that may be used in creating cursors, icons, and tiles.
To edit a bitmap image, simply click on one of the buttons with drawing commands (Point, Curve, Line, Rectangle, and so on) and move the pointer into the bitmap grid window. Press one of the buttons on your mouse and the appropriate action will take place. You can either set, clear, or invert the grid squares. Setting a grid square corresponds to setting a bit in the bitmap image to 1. Clearing a grid square corresponds to setting a bit in the bitmap image to 0. Inverting a grid square corresponds to changing a bit in the bitmap image from 0 to 1 or 1 to 0, depending what its previous state was. The default behavior of mouse buttons is as follows:
MouseButton1 Set MouseButton2 Invert MouseButton3 Clear MouseButton4 Clear MouseButton5 Clear This default behavior
This default behavior can be changed by setting the button function resources. Here is an example:
bitmap*button1Function: Set bitmap*button2Function: Clear bitmap*button3Function: Invert etc.
The button function applies to all drawing commands, including copying, moving and pasting, flood filling, and setting the hot spot.
Here is the list of drawing commands accessible through the buttons at the left side of the application’s window. Some commands can be aborted by pressing A inside the bitmap window, allowing the user to select different guiding points where applicable.
|Clear||This command clears all bits in the bitmap image. The grid squares will be set to the background color. Pressing C inside the bitmap window has the same effect.|
|Set||This command sets all bits in the bitmap image. The grid squares will be set to the foreground color. Pressing S inside the bitmap window has the same effect.|
|Invert||This command inverts all bits in the bitmap image. The grid squares will be inverted appropriately. Pressing I inside the bitmap window has the same effect.|
|Mark||This command is used to mark an area of the grid by dragging out a rectangular shape in the highlighting color. After the area is marked, it can be operated on by a number of commands (see Up, Down, Left, Right, Rotate, Flip, Cut, and so on). Only one marked area can be present at any time. If you attempt to mark another area, the old mark will vanish. The same effect can be achieved by pressing Shift-MouseButton1 and dragging out a rectangle in the grid window. Pressing Shift-MouseButton2 will mark the entire grid area.|
|Unmark||This command will cause the marked area to vanish. The same effect can be achieved by pressing Shift-MouseButton3.|
|Copy||This command is used to copy an area of the grid from one location to another. If there is no marked grid area displayed, Copy behaves just like Mark. Once there is a marked grid area displayed in the highlighting color, this command has two alternative behaviors. If you click a mouse button inside the marked area, you will be able to drag the rectangle that represents the marked area to the desired location. After you release the mouse button, the area will be copied. If you click outside the marked area, Copy will assume that you wish to mark a different region of the bitmap image, thus it will behave like Mark again.|
|Move||This command is used to move an area of the grid from one location to another. Its behavior resembles the behavior of Copy command, except that the marked area will be moved instead of copied.|
|Flip Horizontally||This command will flip the bitmap image with respect to the horizontal axes. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing H inside the bitmap window has the same effect.|
|Up||This command moves the bitmap image one pixel up. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing UpArrow inside the bitmap window has the same effect.|
|Flip Vertically||This command will flip the bitmap image with respect to the vertical axes. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing V inside the bitmap window has the same effect.|
|Left||This command moves the bitmap image one pixel to the left. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing LeftArrow inside the bitmap window has the same effect.|
|Fold||This command will fold the bitmap image so that the opposite corners become adjacent. This is useful when creating bitmap images for tiling. Pressing F inside the bitmap window has the same effect.|
|Right||This command moves the bitmap image one pixel to the right. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing the right arrow inside the bitmap window has the same effect.|
|Rotate Left||This command rotates the bitmap image 90 degrees to the left (counter clockwise.) If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing L inside the bitmap window has the same effect.|
|Down||This command moves the bitmap image one pixel down. If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing the down arrow inside the bitmap window has the same effect.|
|Rotate Right||This command rotates the bitmap image 90 degrees to the right (clockwise.) If a marked area of the grid is highlighted, it will operate only inside the marked area. Pressing R inside the bitmap window has the same effect.|
|Point||This command will change the grid squares underneath the mouse pointer if a mouse button is being pressed down. If you drag the mouse button continuously, the line may not be continuous, depending on the speed of your system and frequency of mouse motion events.|
|Curve||This command will change the grid squares underneath the mouse pointer if a mouse button is being pressed down. If you drag the mouse button continuously, it will make sure that the line is continuous. If your system is slow or bitmap receives very few mouse motion events, it might behave quite strangely.|
|Line||This command will change the grid squares in a line between two squares. Once you press a mouse button in the grid window, bitmap will highlight the line from the square where the mouse button was initially pressed to the square where the mouse pointer is located. By releasing the mouse button, you will cause the change to take effect, and the highlighted line will disappear.|
|Rectangle||This command is identical to Rectangle, except at the end the rectangle will be filled rather than outlined.|
|Circle||This command will change the grid squares in a circle between two squares. Once you press a mouse button in the grid window, bitmap will highlight the circle from the square where the mouse button was initially pressed to the square where the mouse pointer is located. By releasing the mouse button you will cause the change to take effect, and the highlighted circle will disappear.|
|Filled Circle||This command is identical to Circle, except at the end the circle will be filled rather than outlined.|
|Flood Fill||This command will flood fill the connected area underneath the mouse pointer when you click on the desired square. Diagonally adjacent squares are not considered to be connected.|
|Set Hot Spot||This command designates one square in the grid as the hot spot if this bitmap image is to be used for defining a cursor. Pressing a mouse button in the desired square will cause a diamond shape to be displayed.|
|Clear Hot Spot||This command removes any designated hot spot from the bitmap image.|
|Undo||This command will undo the last executed command. It has depth one, that is, pressing Undo after Undo will undo itself.|
The File menu commands can be accessed by pressing the File button and selecting the appropriate menu entry, or by pressing the Ctrl key with another key. These commands deal with files and global bitmap parameters, such as size, basename, filename, and so forth.
|New||This command will clear the editing area and prompt for the name of the new file to be edited. It will not load in the new file.
Load This command is used to load a new bitmap file into the bitmap editor. If the current image has not been saved, user will be asked whether to save or ignore the changes. The editor can edit only one file at a time. If you need interactive editing, run a number of editors and use the cut and paste mechanism as described later in this section. (See “Cut and Paste.”)
|Insert||This command is used to insert a bitmap file into the image being currently edited. After being prompted for the filename, click inside the grid window and drag the outlined rectangle to the location where you want to insert the new file.|
|Save||This command will save the bitmap image. It will not prompt for the filename unless it is said to be
|Save As||This command will save the bitmap image after prompting for a new filename. It should be used if you want to change the filename.|
|Resize||This command is used to resize the editing area to the new number of pixels. The size should be entered in the widthçheight format. The information in the image being edited will not be lost unless the new size is smaller that the current image size. The editor was not designed to edit huge files.|
|Rescale||This command is used to rescale the editing area to the new width and height. The size should be entered in the widthçheight format. It will not do antialiasing and information will be lost if you rescale to the smaller sizes. Feel free to add you own algorithms for better rescaling.
Filename This command is used to change the filename without changing the basename nor saving the file. If you specify – for a filename, the output will be piped to stdout.
|Basename||This command is used to change the basename, if a different one from the specified filename is desired.|
|Quit||This command will terminate the bitmap application. If the file was not saved, user will be prompted and asked whether to save the image or not. Quit is preferred over killing the process.|
The Edit menu commands can be accessed by pressing the Edit button and selecting the appropriate menu entry, or by pressing Meta key with another key. These commands deal with editing facilities such as grid, axes, zooming, cut and paste, and so on.
|Image||This command will display the image being edited and its inverse in its actual size in a separate window. The window can be moved away to continue with editing.
Pressing the left mouse button in the image window will cause it to disappear from the screen.
|Grid||This command controls the grid in the editing area. If the grid spacing is below the value specified by gridTolerance resource (8 by default), the grid will be automatically turned off. It can be enforced by explicitly activating this command.|
|Dashed||This command controls the stipple for drawing the grid lines. The stipple specified by dashes resource can be turned on or off by activating this command.|
|Axes||This command controls the highlighting of the main axes of the image being edited. The actual lines are not part of the image. They are provided to aid user when constructing symmetrical images, or whenever having the main axes highlighted helps your editing.|
|Stippled||This command controls the stippling of the highlighted areas of the bitmap image. The stipple specified by stipple resource can be turned on or off by activating this command.|
|Proportional||This command controls the proportional mode. If the proportional mode is on, width and height of all image squares are forced to be equal, regardless of the proportions of the bitmap window.|
|Zoom||This command controls the zoom mode. If there is a marked area of the image already displayed, bitmap will automatically zoom into it. Otherwise, the user will have to highlight an area to be edited in the zoom mode and bitmap will automatically switch into it. You can use all the editing commands and other utilities in the zoom mode. When you zoom out, undo command will undo the whole zoom session.|
|Cut||This commands cuts the contents of the highlighted image area into the internal cut and paste buffer.|
|Copy||This command copies the contents of the highlighted image area into the internal cut and paste buffer.|
|Paste||This command will check if there are any other bitmap applications with a highlighted image area, or if there is something in the internal cut and paste buffer and copy it to the image. To place the copied image, click in the editing window and drag the outlined image to the position where you want to place i, and then release the button.|
Cut and Paste
Bitmap supports two cut and paste mechanisms; the internal cut and paste and the global X selection cut and paste. The internal cut and paste is used when executing copy and move drawing commands and also cut and copy commands from the Edit menu. The global X selection cut and paste is used whenever there is a highlighted area of a bitmap image displayed anywhere on the screen. To copy a part of image from another bitmap editor, simply highlight the desired area by using the Mark command or pressing the shift key and dragging the area with the left mouse button. When the selected area becomes highlighted, any other applications (such as xterm) that use primary selection will discard their selection values and unhighlight the appropriate information. Now, use the Paste command from the Edit menu or control mouse button to copy the selected part of image into another (or the same) bitmap application. If you attempt to do this without a visible highlighted image area, the bitmap will fall back to the internal cut and paste buffer and paste whatever was stored there at the moment.
Following is the widget structure of the bitmap application. The widget class name is given first, followed by the widget instance name. All widgets except the bitmap widget are from the standard Athena widget set.
Bitmap bitmap TransientShell image Box box Label normalImage Label invertedImage TransientShell input Dialog dialog Command okay Command cancel TransientShell error Dialog dialog Command abort Command retry TransientShell qsave Dialog dialog Command yes Command no Command cancel Paned parent Form formy MenuButton fileButton SimpleMenu fileMenu SmeBSB new SmeBSB load SmeBSB insert SmeBSB save SmeBSB saveAs SmeBSB resize SmeBSB rescale SmeBSB filename SmeBSB basename SmeLine line SmeBSB quit MenuButton editButton SimpleMenu editMenu SmeBSB image SmeBSB grid SmeBSB dashed SmeBSB axes SmeBSB stippled SmeBSB proportional SmeBSB zoom SmeLine line SmeBSB cut SmeBSB copy SmeBSB paste Label status Pane pane Bitmap bitmap Form form Command clear Command set Command invert Toggle mark Command unmark Toggle copy Toggle move Command flipHoriz Command up Command flipVert Command left Command fold Command right Command rotateLeft Command down Command rotateRight bitmap, bmtoa, atobm Toggle point Toggle curve Toggle line Toggle rectangle Toggle filledRectangle Toggle circle Toggle filledCircle Toggle floodFill Toggle setHotSpot Command clearHotSpot Command undo
If you would like bitmap to be viewable in color, include the following in the #ifdef COLOR section of the file you read with xrdb:
This will cause bitmap to pick up the colors in the app-defaults color customization file:
where <XRoot> refers to the root of the X11 install tree.
Bitmap widget is a standalone widget for editing raster images. It is not designed to edit large images, although it may be used in that purpose as well. It can be freely incorporated with other applications and used as a standard editing tool. The following are the resources provided by the bitmap widget:
All the Simple Widget resources plus…